人类不同的能力会在不同年龄达到巅峰
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2017-10-03 06:40 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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"At almost any given age, most of us are getting better at some things and worse at others," Joshua Hartshorne, an MIT cognitive1 science researcher and the lead author of a study looking at how intelligence changes as we age, told Business Insider.
 
乔舒亚·哈茨霍恩是麻省理工学院认知科学研究员,他主导了一项关于衰老与智力变化关系的研究。他告诉商业内幕网:“几乎在每个特定的年龄,大多数人会对某些事变得更擅长,而在某些事上开始走下坡路。”
 
The team behind that study quizzed thousands of people aged2 10-90 on their ability to do things like remember lists of words, recognize faces, learn names, and do math. Their results suggest that no matter your age, there's almost always a new peak on the horizon.
 
18岁:大脑信息处理和细节记忆综合能力的巅峰
 
Scientists use a test called Digit3 Symbol Substitution to assess everything from dementia to brain damage. It requires people to use a number of cognitive skills at once — including processing speed, sustained attention, and visual skills. The tool, which typically involves pairing numbers with symbols, is also part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, one of the most widely used measures of intelligence.
 
Hartshorne employed the test in his study of how intelligence changes over time and found that participants' performance generally peaked in their late teens.
 
22岁:对陌生名字记忆能力的巅峰
 
Most adults are bad at memorizing bits of information without context, a phenomenon that neuroscientists chock up to the Baker4/Baker paradox5. A classic example of this idea is that you'll have an easier time remembering a story about someone who bakes than a person with the last name Baker. Because there's no context that links the person to the name, it doesn't become firmly lodged6 in your memory.
 
Young people don't appear to be as saddled by this issue, though -- a 2011 study found that humans are best at learning new names in our early 20s.
 
32岁:面部识别能力的巅峰
 
The human brain has a remarkable7 capacity to recognize and identify faces, and scientists are just beginning to learn why. On average, we know that our ability to learn and remember new faces appears to peak shortly after our 30th birthday.
 
43岁:专注力的巅峰
 
Having trouble focusing? A 2015 study from researchers at Harvard University and the Boston Attention and Learning Laboratory suggests that our ability to sustain attention improves with age, reaching its peak around age 43.
 
"While younger adults may excel in the speed and flexibility8 of information processing, adults approaching their mid-years may have the greatest capacity to remain focused," Joe DeGutis, one of the study's lead authors, said in a statement.
 
48岁:最善于识别他人的情绪
 
Dating is tough. One of the reasons could be that we're generally bad at reading other people's emotions until we reach our late 40s. That's according to one component9 of Hartshorne's study, which involved showing thousands of people images of faces cropped tightly around the eye area. Participants were asked to describe the emotion the person in the photo was feeling. Performance peaked for people aged around 48.
 
50岁:基本算数能力的巅峰
 
Many people believe that their math skills go down the drain after they leave school and stop practicing arithmetic. But the next time you try to split up a check, keep this in mind: your ability to do basic subtraction10 and division doesn't reach its apex11 until your 50th birthday.
 
67岁:词汇能力巅峰
 
Ever wonder why you always lose at Scrabble? Good news: Your best days may be ahead. According to people's scores on multiple-choice vocabulary tests, most of us don't reach our peak wordsmith-ing abilities until we're in our late 60s or early 70s.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 cognitive Uqwz0     
adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
参考例句:
  1. As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  2. The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
2 aged 6zWzdI     
adj.年老的,陈年的
参考例句:
  1. He had put on weight and aged a little.他胖了,也老点了。
  2. He is aged,but his memory is still good.他已年老,然而记忆力还好。
3 digit avKxY     
n.零到九的阿拉伯数字,手指,脚趾
参考例句:
  1. Her telephone number differs from mine by one digit.她的电话号码和我的只差一个数字。
  2. Many animals have five digits.许多动物有5趾。
4 baker wyTz62     
n.面包师
参考例句:
  1. The baker bakes his bread in the bakery.面包师在面包房内烤面包。
  2. The baker frosted the cake with a mixture of sugar and whites of eggs.面包师在蛋糕上撒了一层白糖和蛋清的混合料。
5 paradox pAxys     
n.似乎矛盾却正确的说法;自相矛盾的人(物)
参考例句:
  1. The story contains many levels of paradox.这个故事存在多重悖论。
  2. The paradox is that Japan does need serious education reform.矛盾的地方是日本确实需要教育改革。
6 lodged cbdc6941d382cc0a87d97853536fcd8d     
v.存放( lodge的过去式和过去分词 );暂住;埋入;(权利、权威等)归属
参考例句:
  1. The certificate will have to be lodged at the registry. 证书必须存放在登记处。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Our neighbours lodged a complaint against us with the police. 我们的邻居向警方控告我们。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.显著的,异常的,非凡的,值得注意的
参考例句:
  1. She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  2. These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
8 flexibility vjPxb     
n.柔韧性,弹性,(光的)折射性,灵活性
参考例句:
  1. Her great strength lies in her flexibility.她的优势在于她灵活变通。
  2. The flexibility of a man's muscles will lessen as he becomes old.人老了肌肉的柔韧性将降低。
9 component epSzv     
n.组成部分,成分,元件;adj.组成的,合成的
参考例句:
  1. Each component is carefully checked before assembly.每个零件在装配前都经过仔细检查。
  2. Blade and handle are the component parts of a knife.刀身和刀柄是一把刀的组成部分。
10 subtraction RsJwl     
n.减法,减去
参考例句:
  1. We do addition and subtraction in arithmetic.在算术里,我们作加减运算。
  2. They made a subtraction of 50 dollars from my salary.他们从我的薪水里扣除了五十美元。
11 apex mwrzX     
n.顶点,最高点
参考例句:
  1. He reached the apex of power in the early 1930s.他在三十年代初达到了权力的顶峰。
  2. His election to the presidency was the apex of his career.当选总统是他一生事业的顶峰。
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